Dartmouth Pottery acquired Ashley Clough, Buckfast Potteries around 1958 and absorbed the Design part of the business into a new venture called Britannia Designs. It specialised in souvenir items and was well-known for the Jam pots it produced and decorated for Elsenham Jam and Preserves. [Read more on the Torquay Potteries website, here ].
The modern Royal Worcester mark (without the words Royal Worcester England and the dots) was first introduced in 1862. Initially two numbers in addition to the logo indicated the date (eg 63 for 1863 impressed or printed).
In 1867 the number was printed or replaced with a Capital letter (starting with A and continuing to M in 1877 – neither F or J were used). In 1878 capital letters replaced the numbers completely and from 1878’s N continued through to 1888 and Z (missing out O and Q). The O was used in 1889. In 1890, the latter a appears in lowercase – clearly intending to follow the previous pattern, however, the McKinley Tariff Act meant the the country of origin had to be included on all export ware, so the logo was redesigned to include the words Royal Worcester England around the outside of the circle (with no dots or date mark for 1891).
From 1892 dots were introduced, to the left and right of the Crown, to indicate the year, starting with one dot (on the left) for 1892
The following year a dot was added to the right, the year after another to the right and so on until 1903 by which time there were six on both sides of the Crown.
The following year (1904) a dot was added underneath – in 1905 two dots and so on until 1915, by which time there were six dots on each side of the Crown and 12 underneath the circle making a total of 24.
For most pieces this was now unwieldy so the dots underneath were replaced by an asterisk in 1916 to which a dot was added each following year until 1927.
Quick Reference for dating Royal Worcester 1867 – 1927
NB: Later Meissen Marks (20th Century on) are usually printed on Transfer Printed Wares
In 1907 Leeds business man Samuel Smith started selling Ringtons Tea in Newcastle with little more than a horse and cart and an investment from William Titterton, who he was able to buy out by 1914. By the 1920s they had started to sell Chintz and Willow patterned Ceramics aimed at tea drinkers.
Ringtons Limited Tea Merchants has remained a family business and now supplies Tea and Coffee world wide.
James Sadler and Wade Potteries (now Wade Ceramics) have both made bespoke ceramics for Ringtons and they continue to commission exclusive ranges of pottery for their shop, now.
Royal Corona Ware (also known as Corona Ware) with a very similar mark was made by Sampson Hancock and Sons from 1912 until 1937.
Sampson Hancock was started in Tunstall around 1858. In 1870 they relocated to the Bridgeworks in Stoke. Primarily an Earthenware manufacturer, Hancock’s popular wares were inexpensive. (the hand drawn numbers in the picture are pattern numbers)
were used between 1858 – 1891
was used from 1858
S. H. & S.
S. H. & Sons
1891 – 1935
Other marks from this factory – including ones using the word MAGNET or THE “DUCHESS” CHINA – all either feature the company initials or the factory name within the design. The word England was added after 1891.
Marks featuring a Crown with the word
on its own, underneath are NOT made by Sampson Hancock and Sons – they are either Gater, Hall and Company (1914 – 1943) or by Barratts of Staffordshire (who took over Gater Hall in 1943). From 1943 on they also used a mark incorporating the words
Royal Copenhagen has used the three wavy water lines to identify their porcelain since it started in 1775 – Early pieces frequently include a dot in front of the waves. The mark was not very consistently drawn, often with quite flat waves that look quite rushed- presumably each workman had their own slight variant until about 1820.
Hand drawn lines usually indicate manufacture before 1885. The example to the left is pre 1840.
Between 1885 and 1890 the lines are more uniform – either done with a three nib pen or as a print.
From 1889 a circle was added over the lines – inside which was a crown between the curved words Royal Copenhagen.
From c. 1890, export ware featured a small crown over tiny waves over the word Denmark (spelled in English) in a circle over three larger waves. The circle was dropped from non export marks.
Between 1894 and 1897 a variation of the export mark was used without the circle and the tiny waves, however these are easy to spot as this is the only period in which DANMARK, the Danish word for Denmark, was used.
In 1897 until 1922 the words Royal Copenhagen replaced the circle. Separated with two dots (one each side of the word Royal) the words sit above the three wavy lines.
1923 had two variant marks – one an ornate crown over waves with no text, the other the crown that was used in the post 1923 mark, but over the word Denmark, over the waves.
The printed mark in the bottom picture has been in use with subtle variations since 1923 the principle difference between this and the pre 1923 mark is the combination of the factory name and the country of origin – again spelled in the English way as Denmark. All Royal Copenhagen marks that include text are printed in capitals in a non-serif font.
Dating indicators were first added to the Royal Copenhagen mark in 1935. There were two types – Lines were used underglaze and dots used overglaze, they are quite distinctive and easy to see.
Look for a line under or over the letters (note from 1985 the line covers two letters).
Line over the top of the letter – ROYAL COPENHAGEN – R = 1935, O=1936, Y=1937 etc through to N=1949
Line under the letter – ROYAL DENMARK COPENHA – R=1950, O=1951 Y= 1952 etc through to A=1967
From 1968 to 1974 the mark stayed under the G
From 1975 until 1979 the line moved to the E
From 1980 until 1984 the line moved to the N
From 1985 to 1991 the mark covers both the R and the O
From 1992 to 1999 the mark covers the Y and the A
From 2000 to 2004 the mark covers the A and the L
As before look for a Dot above or below the letters – to make life complicated the years run from the end of the word to the front and the words are repeated… so…
Dot under the letter – KRAMNED – K=1935, R=1936, A=1937 through to D=1941
Dot over the letter – KRAMNED – K=1942, R=1943, A=1944 through to D=1948
Dot under the letter – NEGAHNEPOC – N=1949, E=1950, G=1951 through to C=1958
Dot over the letter – NEGAHNEPOC – N=1959, E=1960, G=1961 through to C=1968
Dot over the letter – ROYAL – L=1969 to 1973, A=1974 to 1978, Y=1979 to 1983, O=1984 – 1988, R=1993
So the modern sugar bowl in the picture dates from between 1969 and 1973.
NB There is a separate code for the crown and Denmark mark (that excludes the factory name) which will be covered in another article.